What is Artificial Intelligence ?

According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, John McCarthy, it is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans.
Some of the activities of computers with artificial intelligence are designed including speech recognition, image classification, natural language processing etc.


History Of Artificial Intelligence

Here is the history of AI during 20th century −

Year Milestone / Innovation
1923 Karel Čapek play named “Rossum's Universal Robots” (RUR) opens in London, first use of the word "robot" in English.
1943 Foundations for neural networks laid.
1945 Isaac Asimov, a Columbia University alumnus, coined the term Robotics.
1950 Alan Turing introduced Turing Test for evaluation of intelligence and published Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Claude Shannon published Detailed Analysis of Chess Playing as a search.
1956 John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence. Demonstration of the first running AI program at Carnegie Mellon University.
1958 John McCarthy invents LISP programming language for AI.
1964 Danny Bobrow's dissertation at MIT showed that computers can understand natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly.
1965 Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT built ELIZA, an interactive problem that carries on a dialogue in English.
1969 Scientists at Stanford Research Institute Developed Shakey, a robot, equipped with locomotion, perception, and problem solving.
1973 The Assembly Robotics group at Edinburgh University built Freddy, the Famous Scottish Robot, capable of using vision to locate and assemble models.
1979 The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, Stanford Cart, was built.
1985 Harold Cohen created and demonstrated the drawing program, Aaron.
1990 Major advances in all areas of AI −
  • • Significant demonstrations in machine learning
  • • Case-based reasoning
  • • Multi-agent planning
  • • Scheduling
  • • Data mining, Web Crawler
  • • Natural language understanding and translation
  • • Vision, Virtual Reality
  • • Games
1997 The Deep Blue Chess Program beats the then world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
2000 Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet, a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites.

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