The action of thinking about something logical is called reasoning. The reasoning is the mental process of deriving logical conclusion and making predictions from available knowledge, facts, and beliefs. Or we can say, "Reasoning is a way to infer facts from existing data." It is a general process of thinking rationally, to find valid conclusions.
In artificial intelligence, the reasoning is essential so that the machine can also think rationally as a human brain, and can perform like a human.
In artificial intelligence, reasoning can be divided into the following categories:
• Deductive reasoning:
• Inductive reasoning:
• Abductive reasoning:
• Common Sense Reasoning:
The above two statements are the examples of common-sense reasoning which a human mind can easily understand and assume.
• Monotonic Reasoning:
It is a true fact, and it cannot be changed even if we add another sentence in knowledge base like, "The earth revolves around the sun " Or "Moon revolves around the earth," etc.
• Non-monotonic Reasoning:
Example:Let suppose the knowledge base contains the following knowledge:
So, from the above sentences, we can conclude that Struthio camelus can fly.
However, if we add one another sentence into knowledge base " Struthio camelus is an Ostrich", which concludes " Struthio camelus cannot fly", so it invalidates the above conclusion.
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