### Python Operators & Collections

``````#Python Arithmetic Opertaors(+ - * / // % **)
x=5
y=3```
```
````x+y`
```

Output:
8

````x-y`
```

Output:
2

````x*y`
```

Output:
15

````x/y`
```

Output:
1.6666666666666667

````x//y`
```

Output:
1

````x%y`
```

Output:
2

````x**y`
```

Output:
125

``````#Python Comparison Operators(< <= > >= == !=)
#In this context the output value must be a boolean value(True / False)
x<=y```
```

Output:
False

````x>=y`
```

Output:
True

````x==y`
```

Output:
False

````x!=y`
```

Output:
True

``````#Python Logical Operators(and or not)
x+y>y and x!=y```
```

Output:
True

````x+y<y or x==y`
```

Output:
False

````x and y`
```

Output:
3

````x or y`
```

Output:
5

````not x+y<y`
```

Output:
True

``````#Python Assignment Operator(=)
x1=200
print(x1)```
```

Output:
200

``````x1+=50
print(x1)```
```

Output:
250

``````#Python Bitwise Operators
x & y```
```

Output:
1

````x | y`
```

Output:
7

````x ^ y`
```

Output:
6

````~x`
```

Output:
-6

````x<<3`
```

Output:
40

````x>>2`
```

Output:
1

``````#Python Identity Operators(is is not)
x1=100
x2=100
y1=[10,20,30,40,50]
y2=[10,20,30,40,50]```
```
````x1 is x2`
```

Output:
True

````y1 is y2`
```

Output:
False

````y1 is not y2`
```

Output:
True

``````#Python Membership Operators(in not in)
s="Hello World!"```
```
````'h' in s`
```

Output:
False

````'h' not in s`
```

Output:
True

````'H' in s`
```

Output:
True

``````#Python Empty List
x=[]
print(x)```
```

[]

``````x=[100,200,12.34,'python',True,200,500]
print(x)```
```

[100,200,12.34,'python',True,200,500]

``````#To get the length of List
len(x)```
```

Output:
7

``````#To get individual data item
x[0]```
```

Output:
100

````x[1]`
```

Output:
200

````x[-1]`
```

Output:
500

``````#To retrieve all data items from a List
for k in x:
print(k)```
```

100
200
12.34
python
True
200
500

``````import sys
print(sys.getsizeof(x))```
```

112

``````#To get all builtin functions
dir(x)```
```

Output:
'__class__',
'__contains__',
'__delattr__',
'__delitem__',
'__dir__',
'__doc__',
'__eq__',
'__format__',
'__ge__',
'__getattribute__',
'__getitem__',
'__gt__',
'__hash__',
'__imul__',
'__init__',
'__init_subclass__',
'__iter__',
'__le__',
'__len__',
'__lt__',
'__mul__',
'__ne__',
'__new__',
'__reduce__',
'__reduce_ex__',
'__repr__',
'__reversed__',
'__rmul__',
'__setattr__',
'__setitem__',
'__sizeof__',
'__str__',
'__subclasshook__',
'append',
'clear',
'copy',
'count',
'extend',
'index',
'insert',
'pop',
'remove',
'reverse',
'sort']

````help(x.append)`
```

Help on built-in function append:

append(object, /) method of builtins.list instance
Append object to the end of the list.

``````x.append(600)
print(x)```
```

[100, 200, 12.34, 'python', True, 200, 500, 600]

``````#To insert a data item at a specified position
x.insert(2,300)
print(x)```
```

[100, 200, 300, 12.34, 'python', True, 200, 500, 600]

``````y=x.copy()
print(y)```
```

[100, 200, 300, 12.34, 'python', True, 200, 500, 600]

``````y.clear()
print(y)```
```

[]

````x.count(200)`
```

Output:
2

````x.index(12.34)`
```

Output:
3

``````#Remove a data item from a List
x.remove(200)
print(x)```
```

[100, 300, 12.34, 'python', True, 200, 500, 600]

``````x.pop()
print(x)```
```

[100, 300, 12.34, 'python', True, 200, 500]

``````x.reverse()
print(x)```
```

[500, 200, True, 'python', 12.34, 300, 100]

``````x1=[30,20,10,50]
x1.sort()
print(x1)```
```

[10, 20, 30, 50]

``````x2=[50,60,70]
x1.extend(x2)      #merging two List
print(x1)```
```

[10, 20, 30, 50, 50, 60, 70]

``````#Slicing
print(x)```
```

[500, 200, True, 'python', 12.34, 300, 100]

````x[:4]`
```

[500, 200, True, 'python']

````x[3:]`
```

['python', 12.34, 300, 100]

````x[2:5]`
```

[True, 'python', 12.34]

````x[-5:-2]`
```

[True, 'python', 12.34]

``````#Python Set
s1={100,200,12.34,True,'python',200,300,400}
print(s1)```
```

{'python', True, 100, 200, 12.34, 300, 400}

``````#To get the length
len(s1)```
```

Output:
7

``````#To get the size of s1
import sys
print(sys.getsizeof(s1))```
```

728

``````#To retrieve all data items from Set
for k in s1:
print(k)```
```

python
True
100
200
12.34
300
400

``````s2=set()     #s2:empty set
print(s2)```
```

set()

``````#To get all builtin functions in set
dir(s2)```
```

Output:
['__and__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__iand__', '__init__', '__init_subclass__', '__ior__', '__isub__', '__iter__', '__ixor__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__or__', '__rand__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__ror__', '__rsub__', '__rxor__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__sub__', '__subclasshook__', '__xor__', 'add', 'clear', 'copy', 'difference', 'difference_update', 'discard', 'intersection', 'intersection_update', 'isdisjoint', 'issubset', 'issuperset', 'pop', 'remove', 'symmetric_difference', 'symmetric_difference_update', 'union', 'update']

``````s2.add(200)

print(s2)```
```

{False, 'python', 4.5, 200, 300, 500}

``````#Another approach to represent a set
s3=set([100,200,300,23.45,True,'Machine Learning',500,300])
print(s3)```
```

{True, 100, 200, 300, 'Machine Learning', 500, 23.45}

``````s4=s3.copy()
print(s4)```
```

{True, 'Machine Learning', 100, 500, 23.45, 200, 300}

``````s4.clear()
print(s4)```
```

set()

``````#To remove a data item from a set
s3.remove('Machine Learning')
print(s3)```
```

{True, 100, 200, 300, 500, 23.45}

``````s3.discard(23.45)
print(s3)```
```

{True, 100, 200, 300, 500}

``````s3.remove(900)
print(s3)```
```

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KeyError                        Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-14-f24fb844f5e9> in <module>
----> 1 s3.remove(900)
2 print(s3)

KeyError: 900

``````s3.discard(900)
print(s3)```
```

{True, 100, 200, 300, 500}

``````s3.pop()
print(s3)```
```

{100, 200, 300, 500}

```s4=set([20,30,10,40])
s5=set([40,50,60])```
````s4.union(s5)`
```

Output:
{10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60}

````s4.intersection(s5)`
```

Output:
{40}

``````#Python Tuple
t1=(100,200,5.6,False,'Deep Learning',200,500)
print(t1)```
```

(100, 200, 5.6, False, 'Deep Learning', 200, 500)

``````#To get the length of tuple
len(t1)```
```

Output:
7

``````import sys
print(sys.getsizeof(t1))```
```

96

````t1[0]`
```

Output:
100

````t1[6]`
```

Output:
500

````t1[-1]`
```

Output:
500

````t1[-5]`
```

Output:
5.6

``````#Retrieve all data items from tuple
for x in t1:
print(x)```
```

100
200
5.6
False
Deep Learning
200
500

``````#Another approach to represent a tuple
t2=('a',)
t3=('a','aa')
t4=('a','aa','aaa')
print(t2)
print(t3)
print(t4)```
```

('a',)
('a', 'aa')
('a', 'aa', 'aaa')

````type(t2)`
```

Output:
tuple

````type(t4)`
```

Output:
tuple

``````#Another approach to represent a tuple
t5=1,
t6=1,2
t7=1,2,3
print(t5)
print(t6)
print(t7)```
```

(1,)
(1, 2)
(1, 2, 3)

``````#Tuple Assignment
#(regdno,name,bname)
s=(101,'Akshay','MCA')
regdno=s[0]
name=s[1]
bname=s[2]
print(regdno)
print(name)
print(bname)```
```

101
Akshay
MCA

``````#To get all builtin functions in Tuple
dir(t1)```
```

Output:
'__class__',
'__contains__',
'__delattr__',
'__dir__',
'__doc__',
'__eq__',
'__format__',
'__ge__',
'__getattribute__',
'__getitem__',
'__getnewargs__',
'__gt__',
'__hash__',
'__init__',
'__init_subclass__',
'__iter__',
'__le__',
'__len__',
'__lt__',
'__mul__',
'__ne__',
'__new__',
'__reduce__',
'__reduce_ex__',
'__repr__',
'__rmul__',
'__setattr__',
'__sizeof__',
'__str__',
'__subclasshook__',
'count',
'index']

````t1.count(200)`
```

Output:
2

````t1.index(5.6)`
```

Output:
2

``````#Python Dictionary
car_detail={'brand':'Maruti','model':'Breeza','year':2022}
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza', 'year': 2022}

``````#To get the length of dictionary
len(car_detail)```
```

Output:
3

````type(car_detail)`
```

Output:
dict

``````#To access a data item
car_detail['model']```
```

Output:
'Breeza'

````car_detail.get('model')`
```

Output:
'Breeza'

``````#To get all keys
car_detail.keys()```
```

Output:
dict_keys(['brand', 'model', 'year'])

``````#To get all values
car_detail.values()```
```

Output:
dict_values(['Maruti', 'Breeza', 2022])

``````#To get all pairs
car_detail.items()```
```

Output:
dict_items([('brand', 'Maruti'), ('model', 'Breeza'), ('year', 2022)])

``````#Retrieve all pairs from a dictionary
for x,y in car_detail.items():
print(x,y)```
```

brand Maruti
model Breeza
year 2022

``````#To update data item
car_detail['year']=2021
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza', 'year': 2021}

``````car_detail.update({'year':2020})
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza', 'year': 2020}

``````#Add a new pair
car_detail['color']='Red'
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza', 'year': 2020, 'color': 'Red'}

``````#To copy all pairs from one dictionary to another
car_info=car_detail.copy()
print(car_info)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza', 'year': 2020, 'color': 'Red'}

``````#To release all pairs from a dictionary
car_info.clear()
print(car_info)```
```

{}

``````#To remove a pair from a dictionary
car_detail.pop('year')
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza', 'color': 'Red'}

``````car_detail.popitem()
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti', 'model': 'Breeza'}

``````#using del keyword we can remove a pair from a dictionary
del car_detail['model']
print(car_detail)```
```

{'brand': 'Maruti'}

``````#to delete entire dictionary
del car_detail
print(car_detail)   #output : NameError: name 'car_detail' is not defined```
```

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