Sockets in Networking

What are Sockets?

A logical connecting point is required between a server and a client so that they can communicate through that point, this point is called socket. Each socket is given an identification number called port number. A port number is 2 bytes so it can be 0 to 65,535 i.e., (0 - 2 16 ). Establishing communication between server and client using socket is called socket programming. For each socket there is a port number assigned to it, some pre-allotted port number for the service shown in the below table.

Application of Service Port Number
FTP (file transfer protocol), which transfers files 21
Telent, which provides remote login 23
SMTP (Simple mail transfer protocol), which delivers mails 25
BOOTP (Bootstrap protocol), which provided configuration at boot time 67
HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol), which transfers webpages. 80
POP2 (Post office protocol 2), A mailing service 109
POP3 (Post office protocol 3), A mailing service 110
NNTP (Network news transfer protocol), which is for transferring news articles. 119
HTTPS, which transfers web pages Securely. 443

What is IP address?

To send data from one computer to another, first of all the computer should be correctly identified on a Network. This is done with the IP addresses. An IP address is a unique identification number given to every computer for Networking purpose. It contains 4 integer number and separated by dot(.), these Integers are from 0 to 255 range. Ex: -
To know the IP address in a website on internet, we can use gethostbyname() function available in socket module.

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